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Applications for nanomaterials in critical technologies

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Title: Applications for nanomaterials in critical technologies
Author(s): Li, Xuan
Director of Research: Economy, James
Doctoral Committee Chair(s): Economy, James
Doctoral Committee Member(s): Geil, Phillip H.; Plewa, Michael J.; Shim, Moonsub
Department / Program: Materials Science & Engineerng
Discipline: Materials Science & Engr
Degree Granting Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Degree: Ph.D.
Genre: Dissertation
Subject(s): disinfection virus iron oxide nanoparticles zinc oxide nanoparticles fiberglass lubricant polyester low-k dielectrics
Abstract: This thesis is devoted to the development, synthesis, properties, and applications of nano materials for critical technologies, including three areas: (1) Microbial contamination of drinking water is a serious problem of global significance. About 51% of the waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States can be attributed to contaminated ground water. Development of metal oxide nanoparticles, as viricidal materials is of technological and fundamental scientific importance. Nanoparticles with high surface areas and ultra small particle sizes have dramatically enhanced efficiency and capacity of virus inactivation, which cannot be achieved by their bulk counterparts. A series of metal oxide nanoparticles, such as iron oxide nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles and iron oxide-silver nanoparticles, coated on fiber substrates was developed in this research for evaluation of their viricidal activity. We also carried out XRD, TEM, SEM, XPS, surface area measurements, and zeta potential of these nanoparticles. MS2 virus inactivation experiments showed that these metal oxide nanoparticle coated fibers were extremely powerful viricidal materials. Results from this research suggest that zinc oxide nanoparticles with diameter of 3.5 nm, showing an isoelectric point (IEP) at 9.0, were well dispersed on fiberglass. These fibers offer an increase in capacity by orders of magnitude over all other materials. Compared to iron oxide nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles didn’t show an improvement in inactivation kinetics but inactivation capacities did increase by two orders of magnitude to 99.99%. Furthermore, zinc oxide nanoparticles have higher affinity to viruses than the iron oxide nanoparticles in presence of competing ions. The advantages of zinc oxide depend on high surface charge density, small nanoparticle sizes and capabilities of generating reactive oxygen species. The research at its present stage of development appears to offer the best avenue to remove viruses from water. Without additional chemicals and energy input, this system can be implemented by both points of use (POU) and large-scale use water treatment technology, which will have a significant impact on the water purification industry. (2) A new family of aliphatic polyester lubricants has been developed for use in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), specifically for hard disk drives that operate at high spindle speeds (>15000rpm). Our program was initiated to address current problems with spin-off of the perfluoroether (PFPE) lubricants. The new polyester lubricant appears to alleviate spin-off problems and at the same time improves the chemical and thermal stability. This new system provides a low cost alternative to PFPE along with improved adhesion to the substrates. In addition, it displays a much lower viscosity, which may be of importance to stiction related problems. The synthetic route is readily scalable in case additional interest emerges in other areas including small motors. (3) The demand for increased signal transmission speed and device density for the next generation of multilevel integrated circuits has placed stringent demands on materials performance. Currently, integration of the ultra low-k materials in dual Damascene processing requires chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to planarize the copper. Unfortunately, none of the commercially proposed dielectric candidates display the desired mechanical and thermal properties for successful CMP. A new polydiacetylene thermosetting polymer (DEB-TEB), which displays a low dielectric constant (low-k) of 2.7, was recently developed. This novel material appears to offer the only avenue for designing an ultra low k dielectric (1.85k), which can still display the desired modulus (7.7Gpa) and hardness (2.0Gpa) sufficient to withstand the process of CMP. We focused on further characterization of the thermal properties of spin-on poly (DEB-TEB) ultra-thin film. These include the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), biaxial thermal stress, and thermal conductivity. Thus the CTE is 2.0*10-5K-1 in the perpendicular direction and 8.0*10-6 K-1 in the planar direction. The low CTE provides a better match to the Si substrate which minimizes interfacial stress and greatly enhances the reliability of the microprocessors. Initial experiments with oxygen plasma etching suggest a high probability of success for achieving vertical profiles.
Issue Date: 2010-08-20
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2142/16838
Rights Information: Copyright 2010 Xuan Li
Date Available in IDEALS: 2010-08-20
Date Deposited: 2010-08
 

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